Dyslipidemia is a group of disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, which includes over production or deficiency of lipoproteins or both. It is regarded as primary risk factors for atherosclerotic disease, especially coronary heart disease. Dyslipidemia components may include elevated LDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides or both and/or low HDL (protective) cholesterol. It is a pathological condition in which lipid levels are deranged. In developed countries, it is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Unani scholars have mentioned it as a major public health problem leading to dreadful complications such as angina pectoris (Waja‘al- Qalb), palpitation (Khafaqan) myocardial infarction (Iflas al Qalb), obesity (Siman-e- Mufrit), diabetes mellitus (Ziabetus Shakri), cancer (Sartaan) and abrupt death etc.

In India approximately 25-30% of urban and 15-20% rural subjects are suffering from dyslipidaemia. Although, it is more common among males, but it affects both the genders. 30 to 40 years age group has tendency to high prevalence, but above 60 years it become markedly high. Men are more prone than women. In developed countries, most dyslipidemias are hyperlipidemias; that is, an elevation of lipids in the blood. This is often due to their dietary habits and lifestyle.

Types of Dyslipidemia: It is of two types

  1. The most common type of dyslipidemia is hyperlipidemia or high lipid levels.
  2. Another, less common form of dyslipidemia is hypolipidemia, which refers to low lipid levels in the blood of an individual.

Risk Factors of Dyslipidemia

Several risk factor associated with Dyslipidaemia are, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sedentary life style, fatty/oily diets, hypothyroidism, excessive alcoholism and smoking.

If dyslipidaemia is not treated/ managed on time, it may lead to co-morbid symptoms like dyspnoea, lethargy, tiredness, weight gain, loss of appetite, poly cystic ovarian disease and complications like hypertension, hypothyroidism, infertility, poly cystic ovarian disease, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and lastly cardiovascular death.

Effect of dyslipidemia on the human body

Dyslipidemia can cause heart disease, heart attack, peripheral artery disease (reduced blood flow in the limbs, usually the legs), or stroke. Low levels of HDL and high levels of triglycerides can also increase fat build-up in the arteries.

Unani Concept of Dyslipidemia

In Unani classical literatures, the term Dyslipidemia, as such is not mentioned however scholars have described it under the broad headings of Dasumat-e- Dam (Greesy blood) & Siman-e- Mufrit (Obesity) along with the abnormalities of Hazm-e- Kabidi as the main cause of dyslipidaemia.

Pathological changes mentioned under the heading “Saman-e- mufrat” (obesity) are same as dyslipidemia. Samn-e- mufrat (Obesity) is a disease caused by su-e- mizaj-e- balgham.

Samn-e- mufrat (obesity) is related to fasaad-e- hazm-e- kabidi, kasrat-e- buroodat-e- kabid (excessive coldness of liver), which causes excessive quantity of phlegm (ghalba-e- balgham) in blood resulting disturbed metabolism.

Unani physicians have clearly mentioned that all the white and colourless fluid of the body comes in the category of phlegm (balghami khilt), when this khilt-e- balghami became abnormal in quality and quantity this will lead to phlegmatic diseases (balghami amraz) and will cause pathological changes in the body.

In samn-e- mufrat (obesity), hararat-e- ghariziya reduces and leads to less supply of rooh to the vessels.

The causes responsible for samn-e- mufrat (obesity) are same which are responsible for dyslipidemia, these are heredity, martoob ghiza, kasrat-e- ghiza, rahat, lack of exercise, martoob roghaniyat, intake of excessive alcohol especially after meal.

In Classical Unani literature, there is a concept of Quwt-e- Tabaiyah, which provides the functions of Taghziya (nutrition), Namiya (growth) and Tanasuliya (reproduction) in the body and drive out the waste products (Fuzlat) from the body. Kabid (Liver) is the prime organ of Quwat-e-Tabaiya.

Quwat-e- Ghazia is one of the types of Quwat-e- Tabaiya which is responsible for ingestion, digestion, absorption, transformation and assimilation of ghiza (Food) and excretion of waste products from the body.

Quwat-e- Ghazia is served by four kinds of subordinate faculties (Quwat-e-Khadima). Hazm-e- Kabidi is one of the parts of Quwat-e-Hazema i.e. type of subordinate faculty of Quwat-e-Ghazia. Hazm-e- Kabidi is aimed at benefiting its own cells as well as the entire body.

Hippocrates (Buqrat) was the first Unani Physician, who gave comprehensive explanation of Saman-e- Mufrat including its complications, later on renowned Unani physicians like Galen, Ali- Ibn Abbas Majoosi and Ibn-e- Rushd have mentioned the concept of Shaham (fat) and Siman-e-Mufrit in their treatises.

Zakariya Razi described the importance of dieto- therapy in the management of samn-e- mufrat (obesity).

Ibn-e- sina has mentioned the importance of evacuation of morbid material (istifragh) in the management of obesity. He stated that the diuretic (Mudirr) and laxative (Mulayyan) Unani drugs, reduce the body weight by hindering the digestive process via inhibiting the absorption of digested food.

Ismail Jurjani and Ibn-e- Nafees pointed out that obese people are more prone to develop cardiac and cerebral complications such as Khafqan (palpitation), Sakta (stroke), Ghashi (syncope), concealed haemorrhage, coma and sudden death.

Usool-e- Ilaj (Principles of Management)

  • Treat the cause of disease
  • Correction of temperament (mizaj)
  • Use of diuretic (mudir), anti-inflammatory (muhallil), hot (haar), calorifacient (musakhin), aphrodisiac (muarriq) and deobstruent (mufatteh-e- sudad) drugs

Management/ Treatment of Dyslipidemia

Reducing elevated levels of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) significantly reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) events and mortality in hypercholesterolemia patients.

Currently, various synthetic agents are being used in the treatment/ management of dyslipidaemia, however, Long term use of these medicine may leads to various adverse/ side effects like: hepatotoxicity, renal dysfunction, flushing, pruritus of the face and upper trunk, dyspepsia, myopathy, bloating, constipation,  skin rashes,  urticaria, myalgias, fatigue, headache, impotence, acanthosis nigricans,anaemia, hair loss etc.

Unani modalities of treatment/ management are safe, cost effective and easily available for better management of dyslipidaemia.

Treatment modalities available in Unani system of medicine for the management of dyslipidaemia are:

  • Dietotherapy (Ilaj Bil Ghiza)
  • Regimental Therapy (Ilaj Bil Tadbir)
  • Pharmacotherapy (Ilaj Bil Dawa)

Prevention (Tahaffuz)

  • Awareness of the importance of the risk of dyslipidemia
  • Adoption of a diet pattern which is low in saturated fats and cholesterol to prevent lipid abnormalities
  • Eating foods high in soluble fibres such as oats, beans, peas and certain fruits
  • Maintaining a healthy weight—or losing weight, if necessary
  • Moderate alcohol consumption increases levels of HDL cholesterol, which decreases the risk of CHD

Single Unani Drugs used for the management of Dyslipidemia

Renowned Unani physicians like Hippocrates (Buqrat), Galen (Jalinoos), Zakaria Rhazi, Ali Ibn-e- Abbas Majoosi, Sheikh Ibn-e- Sina, Ismail Jurjani etc. have recommended various drugs, which are hot in temperament to modulate liver functions and also scientifically reported to have anti-dyslipidaemic activity.

           Unani name                     Scientific name

  • Aamla                          (Phyllanthous officinalis)
  • Halela Zard                 (Terminalia chebula)
  • Balela                          (Terminalia bellerica)
  • Afsanteen                    (Atrimisia absinthium)
  • Zeera                           (Carum carvi)
  • Baadiyan                     (Foeniculm vulgare)
  • Ajwain khurasani        (Trachyspermum ammi)
  • Ajwain desi                 (Ptycotis ajowan or carum copticum)
  • Anisoon                       (Pimpinella anisum)
  • Asaaroon                     (Asarum europaeum)
  • Saad koofi                   (Cyperus rotundus)
  • Filfil siyah                   (Piper nigrum)
  • Kishneez khushk         (Coriander sativum)
  • Lehsun                        (Alium sativum)
  • Zanjabeel                     (Zingiber officinale)
  • Elwa                            (Aloe barbadensis)
  • Balchhar                      (Nordostachys jatamansi)
  • Muqil                           (Commiphora mukul)
  • Chhal-e- Arjun            (Terminalia arjuna)
  • Badranjboya                (Mellisa officinalis)
  • Aabresham                  (Bombyx mori)
  • Tukhm-e- Methi          (Trigonella foenum-graecum)
  • Lahsun                                    (Allium sativum)
  • Chaub Zard                 (Curcuma longa)
  • Tukhm-e- Kalonji        (Nigella sativa)
  • Gurmar Booti              (Gymnemma sylvestere)
  • Post-e- Anar                (Punica granatum)
  • Kundur                        (Boswellia serrata)
  • Kanduri                       (Coccinia indica)

Compound Unani Formulations

Some compound Unani formulations, which has been scientifically proven for anti-dyslipidemic activity on human subjects and are highly effective for the management of dyslipidemia and obesity (saman-e- mufrat) are:

  • Safoof Muhazzil
  • Safoof Kalonji
  • Qurs-e- Luk
  • Itriphal Sagheer
  • Habb-e- Sundarus
  • Majoon Sheer Alvi Khan




  • Along with medicine the patients have to follow strict unani regimen for optimum results as per the concept of Unani system of medicine. The patients are therefore, strongly advised to avoid self-medication.
  • They are advised to visit the nearest authorized Unani treatment centre for advice and treatment.

  • PUBLISHED DATE : Apr 05, 2019
  • CREATED / VALIDATED BY : Dr. Mahtab Alam Khan
  • LAST UPDATED ON : Apr 05, 2019


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