Hepatic Debility (Zo'f-e- Kabid)


Zo’f-e- Kabid (Hepatic Debility) is a condition in which functions of liver become weak. It is characterized by the yellowish or whitish discolouration of skin, decreased appetite, weight loss and general weakness.

In Hepatic debility (Zo’f-e- Kabid), all the four faculties of liver or some of them become weak. According to Unani Medicine, liver is an organ for production of humours (Akhlat) and its four vital powers (Quwa) namely power of absorption (Quwat-e- Jaziba), power of digestion (Quwat-e- Ghaziya), power of retention (Quwat-e Masikah) and power of excretion (Quwat-e- dafe’a) perform all the functions related to liver.

Liver (Kabid) is the largest organ of the body, considered as source of innate heat (Hararat-e-ghariziya) for body. Jalinoos (Galen) even stated liver counterpart with sun. 

The basic functions of liver are conveniently grouped under vascular functions, excretory and secretory functions, metabolic functions and detoxifications functions.

The derangement of function of any of four powers of liver produces derangement in temperament of humours. Moreover, deranged temperament of the humours leads to accumulation of morbid material (mawad-e- fasida) and ultimately pathological changes in the liver. The derangement of temperament of humours may be simple (Saada) which need simple therapeutic measures or it may be compound (Maddi) in which organic disturbance and quantitative changes take place in the liver cells.

A number of liver diseases are mentioned in Unani Medicine, such as Su-e- Mizaj (Abnormal/ Pathological temperament of the Liver), Zo’f-e- Kabid (Hepatic debility), Sudda-e- Jigar (Hepatic obstruction), Dard-e- Jigar (Hepatalgia), Warm-e-Jigar (Hepatitis), Zarba-e- Jigar (Trauma), Dabila-e- Jigar (Hepatic Abscess), Segar-e-jigar (Cirrhosis of Liver), Su-ul- Qinaya (Anemia) and Istiska  (Ascites).

Zo’f-e- Kabid (Hepatic debility) is caused by simple/ compound morbid temperament (Su-e- mizaj sada/ maddi), diseases of neighbouring organs (Amraaz-e- A’za-e- Mujaawirah) e.g. stomach, uterus, gall bladder, spleen etc. and other hepatic disorders such as hepatic congestion (Imtila-e- Kabid), hepatic calculi (Hasaat-e- Kabid), hepatic atrophy (Tasaghghur-e- Kabid) and hepatitis (Waram-e- Kabid).

It is characterized by the whitish or yellowish discolouration of skin, decreased/ suppressed appetite, weight loss and general weakness. In hepatic debility condition the stool colour looks similar to the colour of washed water of meat and other features will be related to disease of liver or its neighbouring organs (as per the causative factor).

Principles of Treatment (Usool-e- Ilaj)

  • To remove the causative factor (Izala-e- Sabab)
  • To correct the morbid temperament (Ta’deel-e- mizaj)
  • To reduce the quantity of food (Taqleel-e- ghiza)
  • To tone up the liver (Taqwiyat-e- jigar)

Pharmacotherapy (Ilaj Bil Dawa)

  • Oral administration of Murawwaqain with sikanjabin. Murawwaqain is the juice of the medicinal plants, Kasni (Cichorium intybus Linn.) and Mako (Solanum nigrum Linn.) obtained through Tarwiq (the process of cleansing a liquid drug) while Sikanjabeen is a liquid preparation made with vinegar and honey.
  • Oral administration of decoction of Anisoon (Pimpinella anisum Linn.), Baadiyan (Foeniculum vulgare Gaertn.) and Mstagi (Pistacia lentiscus Linn.) with Gulqand-e- A’sli.
  • Oral administration of decoction of Badiyan (Foeniculum vulgare Gaertn.) and Mako (Solanum nigrum Linn.) with Gulqand-e- A’sli.

Single Unani Drugs

  • Gul-e- Surkh/ Ward                Rosa damascena Mill.
  • Hara Chiraitah                        Andrographis  paniculata
  • Kutki                                       Picrorhiza kurroa
  • Darchini                                  Cinnamomum zeylanicum
  • Tukhm-e- Iispast                    Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.
  • Asl-us- Soos                          Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.
  • Zafran                                    Crocus sativus Linn.
  • Neem                                     Azadirachta indica A. Juss.
  • Zard Chob/Haldi                    Curcuma  longa
  • Luk                                         Coccus lacca
  • Bhangra                                 Eclipta prostrata (Linn.) Linn. Syn.: E. alba (Linn.) Hassk.
  • Shahatraj                               Fumaria officinalis Linn.
  • Bhui Aamla                            Phyllanthus  amarus
  • Achhata/Bhuin Amla              Phyllanthus fraternus Webster Syn. Phyllanthus  niruri
  • Aamla                                    Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Syn.: Emblica officinalis Gaertn. 
  • Qaranfal                                Syzygium aromaticum
  • Mako                                     Solanum nigram Linn.
  • Gilo                                       Tinospora cordifolia Miers
  • Zarishk                                  Berberis aristata DC. Syn.: B. chitria Lindl.
  • Asgand                                 Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dun.
  • Chiraitah                               Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Flem.) Karst.
  • Chai                                      Camellia sinensis (Linn.) O. Kuntze
  • Ginseng                                Ginkgo biloba Linn.
  • Javetri/ Jauz bua                  Myristica fragrans Houtt.

 Compound Unani Dtugs

  • Ma’joon Dabeed-ul-Ward
  • Qurs-e- Zarishk
  • Dawa-ul- Kurkum
  • Dawa-ul- Luk
  • Sharbat-e- Afsantin
  • Sharbat-e- Dinar
  • Sharbat-e- Kasoos
  • Jawarish-e- Aamla
  • Jawarish-e- Anaarain

Regimental Therapy (Ilaj Bil Tadbeer)

  • Bloodletting through Basilic vein (Fasd-e- Baasaliq)
  • Bloodletting through Usaylim vein (Fasd-e- Usaylim)
  • Purgation (Ishaal) in case of Su-e- Mizaj Maaddi

Dietary Recommendations

  • Maa-ul- Jubn
  • Maa-ul- A’sl
  • Apple
  • Pomegranate
  • Guava
  • Zood Hazm Aghziya

Dietary Restrictions

  • Aghziya Ghaleeza Lazeeza

Note: Unani drugs should be taken under the advice of the qualified Unani physician. The patients are required to follow strict Unani regimen for optimum results.


  • PUBLISHED DATE : Oct 26, 2020
  • CREATED / VALIDATED BY : Dr. Mahtab Alam Khan
  • LAST UPDATED ON : Oct 26, 2020


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