Waram-e- Kabid Damwi (Sanguineous Hepatitis)

Waram-e- Kabid Damwi (Sanguineous Hepatitis)


Unani Medicine (Greco-Arab Medicine) is one of the ancient systems of medicine. A vast array of literature about liver diseases has been documented in this system of medicine. Liver (Kabid) is an organ for origin of Natural powers (Quwaa). Galen, (129-217 AD) even stated liver as counterpart with sun, which is a source of energy for others planets.

Liver (Kabid) is also an organ for production of humours (Akhlat) for nourishment, growth and development of the human body. Each of the four humours named dam (sanguine), balgam (Phlegm), safra (Yellow bile) and sauda (Black bile) carries their own normal temperaments. The derangement in quality and quantity of humours, leads to liver pathologies. Waram-e- kabid damwi (Sanguineous Hepatitis) is one of them.

According to dominating humours (Akhlat), eminent Unani scholars such as Muhammad Bin Zakariya Razi, Ali Ibn-e- Abbas Majoosi, Sheikh Bu Ali Sina, Muhammad Akbar Arzani, Ibn-e- Hubal and Muhammad Azam Khan have classified hepatitis (Waram-e- kabid) as:

  1. Waram-e- Kabid Damwi (Sanguineous Hepatitis)
  2. Waram-e- Kabid Safravi (Bilious Hepatitis)
  3. Waram-e- Kabid Balgami (Phlegmatic Hepatitis)
  4. Waram-e- Kabid Saudawi (Melancholic Hepatitis)

Waram-e- kabid Damwi (Sanguineous hepatitis) is a disease condition characterized by inflammation or derailment of normal temperament of liver which can lead to increase in size of liver (inflammation of liver) and other associated symptoms. In Unani medicine Sanguineous hepatitis has been treated very effectively by its holistic approach. It is an acute inflammatory condition of liver due to predominance of blood (Dam).

Signs and symptoms of Waram-e- Kabid Damwi (Sanguineous Hepatitis)

It is characterized by acute fever sometimes with and sometimes without chills and rigors, in mild condition of the disease fever is not a compulsory symptom. Along with fever, excessive thirst, pain and heaviness in right hypochondriac region. Oliguria, sometimes diarrhoea and sometimes constipation, loss of appetite, indigestion along with other features of predominance of sanguine (Dam) are also seen. After touching/ pressing ribs pain will be felt beneath the ribs.  Facial redness, dry and coated tongue is also seen. Occasionally it is also associated with hiccup and dry cough. When size of the inflamed liver is big in size. Urine of the patient becomes reddish and concentrated. 

In the last stage of the waram-e- kabid damwi (sanguineous hepatitis), syncope is also seen along with cold extremities. Patient feels difficulty in laying at left side. This type of fever is seen in age group between 25- 35 years.

Types of Sanguineous hepatitis (Waram-e- kabid Damwi)

  1. Waram-e- Jigar Moqaár: Sometimes inflammation develops in the concave part of the live
  2. Waram-e- Jigar Mohaddab: Sometimes inflammation develops in the convex part of the live

In earlier types symptoms of hiccup are more along with vomiting, loss of appetite and severe pain at the site of liver. While in later type symptoms like cough, dyspnoea, heaviness and pain at the site of liver.

Causes of Sanguineous hepatitis (Waram-e- kabid Damwi)

  • Excessive heat
  • Impure and imbalance diet
  • Excessive alcoholism
  • Trauma at the site of liver
  • Excessive use of sweet and oily items.
  • Excessive use of water at the time of high grade fever
  • Impurity of blood
  • Sometimes it develops after seasonal fever and dysentery

Principles of treatment (Usool-e- Ilaj)

  1. Dietary control (Taqleel-e- ghiza) is one of the basic principle of treatment found to be highly beneficial.
  2. Detoxifying the liver with the deleterious effects of daily encounters with air-water and food-borne toxins is also one of the principle of treatment in Unani system of medicine.
  3. Relieving congested and catarrhal conditions of liver and controlling bile secretion has a great role.
  4. Evacuation (Istifraagh) through Fasd (Venesection/ Bloodletting) is also basic principle of treatment of Waram-e- kabid Damwi (Sanguineous hepatitis).
  5. Resolution of inflammation (Tahleel-e- waram) through purgation (Ishaal) and deterrence of causative matter (Rada-e- mawaad) in case of inflammation, being in lower part of liver and diuresis (idraar), when the inflammation is in the upper part of liver.

Management/ Treatment of Waram-e- kabid Damwi (Sanguineous hepatitis)

  1. Regimental Thaerapy (Ilaj Bil Tadbeer)

         Fasd-e- Baasaleeq (Bloodletting through basilic vein) of fasd-e- akhal (Bloodletting through Median cubital vein) of right hand.

        2. Pharmacotherapy (Ilaj Bil Dawa)

  • Oral administration of Luaab-e- asapghol (Mucilage of seed of Plantago ovata, Frosk.)
  • Oral administration of Luaab-e- behdana (Mucilage of seed of Cydonia oblonga, Mill.)
  • Oral administration of pomegranate juice with sikanjabeen
  • Oral administration of Maghz-e- Faloos Khayar shanbar (Fruit pulp of Cassia fistula, Linn.) mixed with Sheera-e- tukhm-e- kasni (Cichorium intybus Linn.)

Local application of following paste (zimaad)

  • Aard-e- Jau (Flour of seed of Hordeum vulgare Linn.), Sandal (Santalum album Linn.), Gulab (Rosa damascene, Mill.), Aab-e- kasni (Fresh) (juice of Cichorium intybus Linn.) and Vinegar.
  • Local application of a mixture of fresh juice of leaves of Mako (Solanum nigrum Linn.) Roghan-e- gul and vinegar in the early stage of disease.
  • Boil the following ingredients in water filter it add Sharbat-e- deenar 24 gms, Sharbat-e- Bazoori 24 gms and use in morning.

Gul-e banfsha (Leaves of Viola odorata Linn.) 7gms, Maweez munaqqa (Vitis vinifera Linn.) 9 gms, Baadiyan (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) 7 gms, Gaozubaan (Onosma bracteatum) 5 gms, Mako khushk (Dried Solanum nigram Linn.) 7 gms, Tukhm-e- kasni (Seeds of Cichorium intybus Linn.)

        3. Dietaotherapy (Ilaj Bil Ghiza)

Dietary Recommendations

  • Always give food less in quantity, light and easily digestible diet is to be recommended.
  • Juice of fruits, especially of pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.)
  • Sattu (Flour of roasted seed of Hordeum vulgare Linn.) mixed with sugar
  • Ma-us- shaeer (Barley water) is best option for the patient of waram-e- kabid damwi (Sanguineous hepatitis)

Dietary Restrictions

  • Avoid fruits having constrictive and retentive properties (Fawakehe qaabiza wa habisa)
  • Avoid use of sweet and oily items

Prevention/ Precaution (Tahaffuz)

  • Strong diuretics and purgatives are to be avoided in sanguineous hepatitis (waram-e- kabid damwi)
  • Advise complete bed rest. Sometimes mild walk is beneficial if the condition is good.

Few Homemade Unani Formulations for Sanguineous Hepatitis (waram-e- kabid Damwi/ waram-e- jigar damwi): The drugs are found to be very effective.

  • Mix Aab-e- mako sabz murawwaq 48 gms, Aab-e- kasni sabz murawwaq 48gms, Sarbat-e- buzoori mo’atadil 48gms and use twice daily. In case of fever use Khaksi (Sisymbrium altissimum Linn.) alongwith this prescription.
  • A decoction constituted from six plants namely, shahatara (Fumaria officinalis), sarphokah (Tephrosia purpurea), chiraita (Swertia chirata), gul-e- mundi (Sphaeranthus indicus) and sandal surkh (Pterocarpussantalinus).
  • Another formulation used in the form of hab (capsule) with ingredients which included Majeeth /Foowah (Rubia cordifolia Linn.), Fu/Basuridoos /sunbul Suri Valerina officinalis, Kababchini/ Kankol (Piper cubeba Linn.) and Bathwa/Qataf (Chenopodium album), to be taken twice daily after food.

Single Unani Drugs recommended

  • Inab-us-Salab / Makoh / Mako            Solanum nigram Linn.
  • Kasni                                                   Cichorium intybus Linn.
  • Amaltas                                               Cassia fistula Linn.                 
  • Gul-e- surkh/ Gulaab                           Rosa damascena Mill.
  • Shaahtara / Shaahtraj                           Fumaria indica Pugsley
  • Baboonah                                             Matricaria chamomilla Linn.
  • Ajmod                                                  Apium graeolens Linn
  • Za’faran                                               Crocus sativus Linn.
  • Mastagi Roomi/ I'lk-al-Butm               Pistacia lentiscus Linn.
  • Daarchini                                             Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume
  • Ood Hindi/ Agar                                  Aquilaria agallocha
  • Sunbul ut teeb/Baalchhar                    Nardostachys Jatamansi (D.Don) DC.
  • Banafsa                                               Viola odorata Linn.
  • Saleekhah/Taj                                     Cinnamomum aromaticum (Bark)
  • Toot Aswad/ Toot Shaami                  Morus nigra Linn.                                          
  • Grape Seeds                                        Vitis vinifera Linn.
  • Hulhul                                                 Cleome icosandra Linn. Syn. C. viscosa Linn.
  • Kasaundi                                             Cassia occidentalis Linn.
  • Sazaj Hindi/ Patraj                              Cinnamomum tamala Nees
  • Afsanteen                                            Artemisia absinthium Linn.
  • Shalgam                                              Brassica rapa Linn.
  • Gajar                                                   Daucus carota Linn.
  • Mooli/ Fujl                                          Raphanus sativus Linn.
  • Kadu                                                   Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne) Poir.
  • Turai                                                    Luffa acutangula (Linn.) Roxb.
  • Khurfa                                                 Portulaca oleracea Linn.
  • Moong                                                 Vigna mungo Linn. Syn. Phaseolus mungo Linn.
  • Palak                                                   Spinacia oleracea Linn.
  • Baranjasif                                            Leonurus cardiaca Linn.
  • Mastagi                                                Pistacia lentiscus Linn.
  • Asal-us- soos                                       Glyccerrhiza glabra Linn.
  • Bhui Amla                                           Phyllanthus amarus
  • Kasoos                                                 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.
  • Ambar baaris                                       Berberis aristata DC. Syn.: B. chitria Lindl.
  • Balsan                                                  Commiphora opobalsamum
  • Aobee/Achaoo                                     Morinda citrifolia Linn.
  • Baae-Khumbha/Baao Khambha         Careya arborea Roxb.
  • Asebra Adeemat-al-Laun                    Leucas aspera (WILLD.) SPRENG.
  • Sheetraj Hindi/Chita Lakdi                 Plumbago zeylanica Linn.
  • Karela                                                 Momordica charantia Linn.

Compound Unani Drugs Recommended

  • Aab-e- Murawwaqain
  • Arq-e- Mako
  • Arq-e- Kasni
  • Arq-e- Anarain
  • Sharbat-e- Deenar
  • Majun Dabeedul ward
  • Dawa- ul-luk kabeer
  • Dawa- ul-luk sagheer
  • Dawa - ul- kurkum
  • Jawarish Anaarain
  • Sharbat-e- Neelofar
  • Sharbat-e- Anaarain
  • Qurs-e- Zarishk
  • Sikanjabeen Sada
  • Sikanjabeen Tursh
  • Maa-ul- Usool















  • Along with medicine the patients have to follow strict regimen as per the concept of Unani system. The patients are therefore, strongly advised to avoid self-medication.
  • They are advised to visit the nearest authorized Unani treatment centre for advice and treatment.



  • PUBLISHED DATE : Jul 26, 2016
  • PUBLISHED BY : Zahid
  • CREATED / VALIDATED BY : Dr. Mahtab Alam Khan
  • LAST UPDATED ON : Jul 26, 2016


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